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The role of sugar in diabetes and other questions about this disease

December 25, 2021

Diabetes mellitus is undoubtedly getting younger! Young women and men with diabetes who have not reached 40 and sometimes 30 years of age with type 2 diabetes, with blood sugar levels of 15-23 mmol / l and higher, sometimes without any complaints characteristic of this disease, come to the appointment.

In conversation with patients, attention is drawn to the fact that, as a rule, almost everyone admits to systematic overeating. There is an abundance of attractive and tasty products now, and there is not enough willpower to control your eating behavior. By and large, a “sitting person” (meaning any office worker) does not need so much food, more important is not the volume, but the regularity of its intake. Golden rules: regularly, fractionally, little by little.

Separately, it should be said about sugar. For a long time already there have been discussions on the topic: “How much sugar should you eat per day without harm to health?” And only in 2003, the WHO adopted 60 grams of sugars per day as the norm. This is not the norm for “pure sugar”; this also includes the sugars of bakery products, cereals, fermented milk products, etc. There are also a lot of sugars in fruits and dried fruits. One apple contains 10 grams, so their use cannot be unlimited!

A small list of foods with many “hidden sugars”:

ketchup 100 gr. – 4 teaspoons
lemonade – 6 teaspoons
fruit juice – 6-9 teaspoons
filled yogurt – 5 teaspoons
Therefore, the amount of “pure sugar” in the diet remains very small: no more than 20 grams (4 teaspoons) for women per day and 30 grams for men. In children, the norms are even less: up to 1 year old – the use of “pure sugar” is not allowed, from 1-3 to 10 g., From 3-6 – 10-15 g., From 6-11 – 15-20 g., With 11 years old – up to 25-30 gr. (almost an adult norm).

Excessive sugar consumption increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes mellitus has different mechanisms of development. Briefly, the mechanism for the development of type 2 diabetes looks like this: an excess of incoming sugar accumulates in the form of fats, the liver is infiltrated by fats, then the pancreas, insulin synthesis (a hormone that processes sugar) is disrupted, metabolic disorders develop – metabolic syndrome, which leads to the development of type 2 diabetes.

To find out if you are at risk, measure your waist circumference: women are more than 80 cm, in men more than 94 cm – and the likelihood of developing diabetes increases dramatically. You also need to know your blood sugar level. Above 5.6 mmol / L from a finger or 6.4 mmol / L from a vein – you need to contact an endocrinologist and make a special analysis – a sugar curve. With age, the likelihood of developing diabetes increases, especially with maternal heredity and obesity!

Methods for detecting diabetes mellitus: drawing a sugar curve is the most reliable way of making a diagnosis; increase in glycated hemoglobin more than 6.5%

First of all, doctors establish the diagnosis and type of diabetes, and then conduct examinations to clarify the presence of complications, which, as a rule, are already at the stage of diagnosis. “Target organs” – primarily those suffering from diabetes mellitus, these are the eyes, peripheral vessels, especially the vessels of the legs, kidneys.

There is a minimum and maximum list of tests for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.
Minimum: fasting blood sugar or sugar curve, glycated hemoglobin, clinical blood test, general urine analysis, biochemical blood test (ALT, AST, creatinine, urea), lipid profile, urine for microalbuminuria, examination by an ophthalmologist, neurologist, ECG (recommendations of the main Russian endocrinological scientific center of Moscow).

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Maximum: fasting blood sugar or sugar curve, glycated hemoglobin, clinical blood test, general urine analysis, biochemical blood test (ALT, AST, creatinine, urea, total bilirubin), urine for microalbuminuria, blood for lipid profile, total protein and protein fractions, insulin, C-peptide, examination by an ophthalmologist, neurologist. ECG. Ultrasound of the abdominal organs and kidneys. Duplex of the arteries of the legs. Electroneuromyography of the lower extremities. If necessary, additional consultation of related specialists: nephrologist, cardiologist.

For those people who have not yet been diagnosed, alertness and prevention are of particular importance.

The main signs of diabetes that should alert and force you to see a doctor: increased thirst, especially nocturnal, frequent, profuse urination, dry skin and tongue, itching of the skin, especially the groin areas, less often decreased visual acuity, numbness or tingling and other discomfort in feet, weakness, stomatitis.

The regular performance of a blood sugar https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_sugar_level test has its own indications: with the above complaints, with obesity, with heredity (from the age of 30, it is definitely necessary to be checked), during pregnancy it is mandatory, before any operation is mandatory. In addition to blood sugar, it is advisable to donate glycated hemoglobin, it will show if the blood sugar has not increased within 3 months before. The rate of this indicator is up to 6%, if one of the indicators is higher, an endocrinologist’s consultation is needed.

You can take the tests yourself, but it would be more correct to visit an endocrinologist, especially if you have excess weight and / or heredity for endocrine diseases, and undergo the examination that is individually prescribed by the doctor and GET RECOMMENDATIONS on nutrition and lifestyle.